Paper and Projects
Links : Sign/Meaning Web Project (class project)
ACTF Website (design work)
Digital Directions Course (teaching)
Explication of Digital Theatre
A Paper for Journalism 767 ew Media Technology
ew Media Technology
This paper is a work in progress.
Disclaimer: This paper is a work in progress.
This paper will explicate the term digital theatre as a performance event which includes both traditional theatre and features elements of new technology. It excludes theatre that does not utilize computer technology, or other technology arts which are not theatre. digital theatre describes theatre events which feature digital technology as an aspect of production, are at least partially performed by live human actors before a live human audience, has limited interactivity and blurring of traditional theatrical roles, and includes both the spoken word and visual or musical information. The key to digital theatre is that it can be anything as long as it is composed of these elements in at least the minimum - but it must contain all elements, otherwise it strays into another field such as art, technology, dance, or community participation.
The words “digital” and “theatre” may be debated at great length, however for the investigation of the proposed term, they shall be understood as follows. The word “digital” taken the phrase digital technology, is any technology related to or mediated by computers which transforms analog or “live” information such as sound waves, visual images, into digital or binary information and can be manipulated and reproduced non-linearly.  The implied distinction between digitally mediated and raw theatrical elements (the actor’s voice and physical gestures or scenic or other audio/visual elements), is that the process of mediation further removes the human actor from the “liveness” of the theatrical event.
Today theatre is an ambiguous word, and since the inception of performance studies (if not before), a common definition of theater has been difficult to reach. There is no one authority to strictly limit the use or scope this term. Theatre is constantly remolded by experiments that defy rules as part of artistic prerogative. But with this bold boundary-testing comes uncertainty as to the exact coordinates of Theatre’s meaning. Though theorists and artists (such as Robert Wilson, Phillip Auslander, Jerzy Grotowski, Laurie Anderson) individually cross boundaries between audience and actors, verbal narrative and visuals, or live and recorded, there must still be something joining theatrical events, for it still exists as a recognized field of study. For the explication of the joint term digital theatre, “theatre” will stand for events which feature predetermined actions performed by human actors before a present human audience. These include spoken words as well as images and sounds which convey meaning (at some level) from message senders (the group effort consisting of actors, directors, designers, playwrights) to message receivers (the audience) gathered in the same space and time.
Related terms such as “live,” and “interactive” will be addressed in the body of this work. At this time, it would be fitting to examine the situation, which compels the explication of Digital Theatre. At this stage in human development, computers are opening up information exchanges between individuals, physically disparate locations, mechanized and organic, and between art disciplines. Though in many ways digital technology, is simply one more tool which can be used to mount a traditional theatrical production (with actors, audience, a stage, a script, etc). It is also (literally) removing the walls of the theatre itself, recasting the ensemble with non-human actors, and threatening to dissolve theatre into other disciplines (such as art or dance) which are using powers of synthesis and information dissemination in ways which have been “theatre’s” domain in the past.
Though digital theatre has gained currency in the arts, it is still an open term. While it may encompass many of the following terms, it is not to be confused with: VR Theatre (Mark Reaney), Computer Theatre (Claudio Pinhanez), Computers as Theatre (Brenda Laurel), Virtual Theater (Stanford), Desktop Theater (Santaman’s Harvest), or Multimedia (performance art such as Laurie Anderson’s Puppet Motel).
Mark Reaney, head of the
On the far end of the spectrum, and outside digital theatre, are what are called desktop theater and virtual theatre. These are created and presented on computers utilizing intelligent agents or synthetic characters, called avatars. Without human actors, or group audiences, these works are computer multimedia interfaces allowing a user to play at the roles of theatre rather than being theatre. For these reasons the Virtual Theatre Project at Stanford and desktop theatre (Adriene Jenik’s  computer production of Waiting for Godot, featuring avatars in a chat room) not digital theatre.
Other terms to be aware of include “Telematic Art” defined by Heidi Grunmann as “art that deals with simultaneity, telepresence, distributed authorship”. “Telematic Performance Work” is defined by the Cellbytes website as the “use of a telecommunication network to establish links between two remote spaces at the same time and to present the activities in those two separate spaces variously as a single performance event”. This then can have overlap with other art forms including video, sculpture and performance. Barry Smith defines “Live Art”, as “time based arts…interrelated hybrids” which may include theatre as well as visual, filmic, and music elements. Though they often feature digital technology, these art terms may or may not be theatre. Digital Dance is a term used to describe dance productions containing digital projection or motion capture technology.
The assimilation of the word “theatre” into computer metaphor and terminology (by Brenda Laurel) and its overuse in describing a variety of worldly concepts, has caused the term to become overextended. Theatre partnered with words such as “virtual” should still refer to “live” people in the same time/space (audience), receiving a creative message (at least partially verbally) from primarily live human actors. While new forms of art may test these ideas, they can also be called something else, such as digital performance or technology-based art. Theatre is a limited interaction in the same space/time between living actors and audience. Digital Theatre is theatre that incorporates digital technology while not bypassing or excluding the human/theatrical element.
IV. Digital Theatre Components:
Digital Theatre’s components are: computer technology, live human actor and audience, limited interactivity, and the existence of both (predetermined) spoken word and visual and/or musical information. Each of these elements could be conceptualized as continuous bipolar dimensions. For example, scale would range between: fully human and computer, completely visual/musical and spoken, no interactivity and the dissolution of theatrical roles of artist/creator and audience, and between face-to-face events and pre-recorded cinema. To be Digital Theatre, elements must not dwell at the extremes (at 0 or 10 on a 0-10 scale) on any of these scales.
In order to discover or circumscribe Digital Theatre from among Digital Performance and Art, I looked to the Turing Test. While Alan Turing set forth the criteria that the computer must pass for human 70% of the time in an open ended five-minute trial, the digital theatre construct is meant to be inclusive, requiring an event pass each of the levels above a minimum. This minimum is measured by standards related to each category, but could loosely be considered one solid unit or 10% of the whole.
a) Feature live human actors as well as digital technology
b) Be presented with minor mediation before a “live” physically present human audience
c) Contain only limited interactivity which allows for theatrical roles
d) Include spoken words as well as audio/visual media
Actors or Alive Message Senders
If one imagines a scale (0 to 10) between machine and human, digital theatre must exist at neither the extreme of 10, human actors speaking without microphones (or other standard mediation), nor must it be at 0, robots acting as viewed remotely over the internet or a computer program playing theatre games by itself. There must be present both digital technology, and human actors.
difficulty lies in the determination of when an actor is partially modified
or mediated by technology. In
the case of projecting images onto costumes as in
Though Phillip Auslander attempts to “problematize” liveness seeing technology mediating all aspects of performance, he re-defines live in terms of what can be done to it (be recorded ) and not what it is. This may apply to the concept of message sending but does not clarify the phyical makeup of the message creator/sender. He does not leave room to explore human and artificially created characters. Auslander rescinded his statement “Virtual + Dance= Virtual” , saying that one does not consume the other. Video does not replace the existence of human dancers on stage – but adds the technological to the “live” making it both live and mediated. Though he occasionally uses the word “live” to describe living actors, Auslander does not offer a new term to describe levels of human-in-the-moment performance. He addresses community as existing in mediated performance and the ephemeral nature of video tape, but does not offer any distinction for situations which occur in immediate proximity with the same air passing between actors and performers, or in the same time frame. Aliveness (or live), as I may use it, will stand for the relationship of time and space that puts two entities in the same breathing space and refers to performers which breathe.
Audience/ Message Transmission
Mediated audiences such as Internet audiences may miss the social and full-sensory data or be privy to non-live additional data which is available to the audience in the immediate performance space. Like cinema or television, computer users will experience a production which is bound or framed (by a monitor) beyond the director’s use of a proscenium arch. The camera directs their gaze. On the open stage or other theatre environment, the spectator’s eye is allowed to wander from actor to actor, to scenic elements, even into the audience. Without a visible interface between the message sender and receiver, a perception of “being there” is immediate and other senses are allowed to mingle as well. (Though the director may direct your eye with stage action, you are free to focus where you will, without additional devices or ambient computer noise.) Even with the use of web-controlled cameras, this immediate access to all aspects of the sensory event is limited and delayed. Also with the use of a camera or external artistic lens recording the action, you are experiencing a secondary product. With this process the technology of framing of close-ups/pans/zooms/edits (techniques shared by cinema/TV/web-cam) beyond the human eye, the event becomes a “microdrama”  which can make the event “hyper-real” rather than real. This is just a newer form of cinematic control and “telivisual” broadcast with limited “interactivity” novelties added.
Though mediation may occur in a limited degree between the physically present actor and audience via microphones, their primary physical/visual/auditory existence (and message) has not left the immediate location of the intended or primary message receivers. This, then ,is still “live” theatre. The degree of physical mediation is one of the measurements of theatre vs. camera pre-processed TV/cinema/webcast. If the message is completely converted to digital form and transported to listeners/watchers in another contained environment(s) especially in the private sphere (home audience), then it ceases to be theatre. It may still be entertainment, spectacle, a message with valuable/exciting or artistic content, but it is not “theatre.” I would suggest that this mediated art form be called “digital performance” for it can be performative and impactful without a physically present audience.
Interactivity/ Theatrical Roles
Interactivity in relationship to theatre is important but not without limitation. The roles of audience and participant have gotten closer together through participatory “happenings” and avant-garde theatre. However, if theater is to remain a somewhat organized event the roles of message sender (actor, director/playwright) and message receiver (audience/lesser participant) must remain to some degree. “The problem with the audience-as-active-participant idea is that it adds to the clutter, both psychological and physical….It's not that the audience joins the actors on the stage; it's that they become actors-and the notion of ‘passive’ observers disappears.” Chaos may ensue and the event would become spectacle rather than organized theatre.
Being immersed in a virtual reality world is highly physically interactive, so much so that the audience member becames a user or particpant in the event. Having a physical presence in the “world of the play” may change the world around them. In terms of virtual reality (VR), “interactivity, refers to the degree to which users of a medium can influence the form or content of the mediated environment.” It is noted by Brenda Laurel (creator of the Placeholder virtual world) that when influencing the world around you, your are more than an audience member. “In fact, it may be that the nature of VR makes it inappropriate to think of it as an entertainment medium at all. Entertainment—at least mass entertainment—implies the consumption of some performance by a large audience.” Physical audience participation can happen without technology, such as in environmental plays such as Tony and Tina’s Wedding where the audience shares dinner and interacts with the actors…or other productions where audience members speak or act as participants in the designated acting space.
Spoken Word or Verbal Message as well as Musical and Visual Data
One main aspect of theatre and therefore digital theatre is the existence of more than one artistic mode of communication, specifically the coexistence of the spoken word with either visual images and/or musical information. Despite disagreement over narrative in theater, spoken words remain an important factor in determining weather a work is art, dance, theatre, or something else. There are four levels of scripting which accompany the spoken word in digital theatre; they are pre-scripted, scripted, loosely scripted, and non-scripted.
Without the spoken word, a piece is art, or dance, or a performative combination thereof, but it is not theatre. Examples of this include the non-scripted work of Riverbed or Telematic art installations such as the Difference Engine. The collaborative Digital Dances produced by Riverbed featuring collaboration with Merce Cunningham and Bill T. Jones (such as GhostCatching and Biped), are beautifully created performances featuring live and digitized motion capture animations of dancers performing before the same physical audience at the same time. However, no words are spoken by the dancers, so it remains dance. Other dance works featuring web broadcasts are beginning to cross-over into theatre, as the dancers open their mouths and address the audience with words (sometimes from the internet). Telematic works such as the Difference Engine also play with place and presence, but do not include a pre-determined verbal message from live message sender to audience receiver. There is a strong correlation between the presence and absence of spoken words and a performance being referred as “opera,” “theatre,” “dance,” “art,” “performance” event, or “spectacle”.
It is necessary to have more than the visual and audio
elements in a theatrical production.
Without the spoken word, an event is art or dance, or a performative combination thereof, but it is not theatre. The use of “spoken word” or verbal message is
a partial solution to the disagreement in the theater community of the
value of the term “narrative” in relation to theatre. 
In his article, “Contemporary
Performance/Technology,” Johannes H. Birringer
also uses “narrative content”
as a distinctive element separating digital dance, arts, from theatre.
Robert Wilson is described as abandoning literary
theatre for theatre dominated by images and stage picture. However,
Works such as
If technology is communication, the creation and interpretation of symbols, then theatre is itself technology. Theatre then should not fear digital technology, which is just another tool for creating the theatrical event. It is as potentially compatible (useful) to theatre as hydraulics, the dirt circle or boards of a stage, the written technology script, or the electric or candle lighting by which to read it. It is my hope that these conflicting elements such as human and machine can be married in a new form of theatre. A theatre in which one does not seek to consume the other, but utilizes both aspects: the human message creator, and digital technology as a tool to expand the reach of that message to create new and insightful ways of expressing human experience.
Footnotes for Table:
58 Interaction, Reaction and Performance: The human body tracking project, Sue Broadhurst, http://www.c5corp.com/venues/ydstyds/index.shtml
59 I Do Fly, Isabelle Jenniches , http://www.9nerds.com/isabel
Theatre & Technology
Anderson, Laurie. Puppet Motel. Interactive CD-ROM. 1995.
Ascott, Roy. "Is There Love in the Telematic Embrace?" Art Journal. 49:3 (1990): 241-7.
Philip. “Against Ontology: Making Distinctions between the Live and the
Mediatized.” In Vol. 2 #3, Performance Research.
Dance & Technology Zone http://www.art.net/~dtz/.
deLahunta, Scott. “Speculative Paper: Theater/Dance and New Media and Information Technologies.” http://www.art.net/resources/dtz/scott3.html.
deLahunta, Scott. “Virtual Reality and Performance.” PAJ: A Journal of Performance and Art, 24.1 (2002) 105-114.
The Virtual Theater Project
DPA. “Doublehappines2 (Description).” http://dpa.ntu.ac.uk/dpa_search/result.php3?author=261.
Digital Performance Archive http://dpa.ntu.ac.uk/dpa_site/main.html.
Flying Karamazov Brothers www.fkb.com
Fraser, David G. Tesla Electric. http://www.ukans.edu/~mreaney/tesla/.
Gertude Stein Repertory Theatre http://www.gertstein.org.
Ippolito, Jon. The Art of Misuse. http://telematic.walkerart.org/overview/overview_ippolito.html.
Jenniches ,Isabelle I Do Fly http://www.9nerds.com/isabel
Jones, Mark J. Brenda Laurel: The Technodiva Speaks. www.cyberstage.org/archive/cstage11/laurel11.html.
Lyotard Demo website. http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs.cmu.edu/project/oz/web/lyotard2.html.
Mirapaul, Matthew. "The Staging of Multisite
Arts Performances Online,"
Nielsen, Frank. The HyperMask Project. http://www.csl.sony.co.jp/person/nielsen/HYPERMASK/hypermask.html.
Supreme Particles,Binary Ballistic Ballet http://www.particles.de/paradocs/index.html,
Pinhanez, Claudio S. “It/I.” http://web.media.mit.edu/~iti/.
Pinhanez, Claudio S. “SingSong: A Play for Human and Computer Actors.” http://web.media.mit.edu/~pinhanez/singsong/singsong.html.
Reaves, John. “Theory and Practice: The Gertrude Stein Repertory Theatre.” www.cyberstage.org/archive/cstage13/gsrt13.html. GS3
Santaman’s Harvest http://visarts.ucsd.edu/~ajenik/adriene.html.
Stanford Virtual Theatre http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/projects/cait/
Studio Z http://www.studioz.com
“Defining Virtual Reality:
Telepresence.” In Communications
in the Age of Virtual Reality, Frank Biocca,
and Mark R. Levy, eds.
Troika Ranch http://www.troikaranch.org/.
Weidemann, Carl http://www.geocities.com/Broadway/Stage/1321/index.htm.
George Coates Performance Works:
San Francisco Chronicle.
Carstensen, Jeanne. “George Coates: the High and Low of Tech”. The Gate. www.georgecoates.org/OnMars/show/pressrelease.txt.
DPA. “Blind Messengers (Description).” http://dpa.ntu.ac.uk/dpa_search/result.php3?keywords=George+Coates.
George Coates Performance Works website. www.georgecoates.org
Illingworth, Montieth M. George Coats (sic): Toast of the Coast. www.cyberstage.org/archive/cstage12/coats12.htm.
Zagreus, Leah. Art as Fascism? No, Just a Bunch of Sarcastic Crap. http://www.auricular.com/AIM/reviews/coates/coates.html.
Mahoney, Diana Phillips. "Live Theater Gets a Virtual Boost: At the University of Kansas, computer-generated scenery sets the stage for a one-of-a-kind production." Computer Graphics World, (July 1995) 76-78. K3
 “Digitalization: coding into discontinuous values--usually two-valued or binary… analog signal varying continuously in time… Because most modern computers process digital information, the progressive digitalization of mass media, and telecommunications content begins to blur earlier distinctions between the communication of information and its processing … as well as between people and machines. Digitalization makes communication from persons to machines, between machines, and even from machines to persons as easy as it is between persons. Also blurred are the distinctions among information types: numbers, words, pictures, and sounds, and eventually tastes, odors, possibly even sensations, all might one day be stored, processed, and communicated in the same digital form.” c Pg. 25
 “Although digital technologies are based on binary
logic, they have had the ironic effect of dismantling cultural binaries,
including distinctions between original and copy, producer and consumer,
music and nonmusic (since the digitization
of music renders it exchangeable and interchangeable with any other
digital information), human being and machine.” Auslander,
Philip. Liveness: Performance in a mediated culture.
 Pinhanez, Claudio S. "Computer
 Pinhanez, Claudio S. "Computer Theater.", p.2.
 Virtual Theatre is defined by the Virtual Theatre Project at Stanford –on their website as a project which “aims to provide a multimedia environment in which user can play all of the creative roles associated with producing and performing plays and stories in an improvisational theatre company.”
Josephine. Interview with Heidi Grundmann.
 Smith, Barry. “Live Art’s Digital Horizons: Recording Recent Developments in Live Art Practices.” Literary and Linguistic Computing, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1997, 251-257, p.252.
 Dance and Technology Zone, http://art.net/~dtz/
 Note that
 While the Digital Performance Archive is excellent resource for digital performance materials, it’s rich catalogue of materials such as CD’s, websites, art, performance, dance, and theatre—it is overly inclusive. It encompasses “…live theatre and dance productions that incorporate digital projections, to performances that take place on the computer-screen via web casts and interactive virtual environments.” So though it provides possibilities for research, it does not guide the user to definite isolated examples of Digital Theatre. http://dpa.ntu.ac.uk/dpa_site/main.html.
 Turing, Alan M. “Computing Machinery and Intelligence.” Mind: A Quarterly Review of Psychology and Philosophy, Gilbert Ryle, ed. LIX, no. 236. Ediburgh: T. Nelson & Sons, Ltd., 1950. 433-460.
 Dr. Baz Kershaw Lecture, at
the scene, the actor and dinosaur worked together as a team…This synthesis
of the live with the artificial also created a sense of presence that
might have otherwise been lost without the use of human actors. Under different circumstances we would have
been able to create dinosaur characters with a greater range of movement,
facial expressions and speech capabilities.
However with such a configuration much of the play would have
taken place on the projection screen alone, with no live, three-dimensional,
breathing humans on stage.” Reaney, Mark. Virtual Characters in Theatre Production:
Actors and Avatars. VRIC, Virtual Reality International Conference,
 Auslander, Philip. Liveness.
Auslander, Philip. Liveness p.55.
 Auslander, Philip. Liveness.p.39.
 This does
not consider the time frame of degradation –the shelf life is much
larger for the videotape than for the immediately vanishing actor
on stage..See Newell, Allen. Unified Theories of Cognition.
“VERBS live, be alive or animate or vital, have life,
exist… 1.8, breathe, respire, live and breathe,
fetch or draw breath, draw the breath of life, walk the earth, subsist.” Roget’s International Thesaurus. Fourth edition. Revised by Robert L. Chapman.
 Wyatt, Robert O., Elihu Katz, and Joohan Kim. “Bridging the Spheres: Political and Personal Conversation in Public and Private Spaces.” Journal of Communication, Vol. 50, No. 1, Winter 2000, 71-92.
 Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural
Transformation of the Public Sphere:
An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Translated by Thomas Burger.
 “Thus Flanagan was completely disconnected form the reactions of the audience, giving her no ability to interact with or adjust to her onlookers. This caused her to see a need for the presence of the performer in the audience’s location and for continuous feedback during the performance.” Lichty, Patrick. “The Cybernetics of Performance and New Media Art.” Leonardo, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2000, 353.
 “A distributed
network of nodes does not constitute an audience.” Newhagen, John.
 Georgia Living Newspaper website refers to the “live audience” and the “internet audience.” http://www.drama.uga.edu/production/archive/2001-2002/livingnewspaper/
 Try being one of many internet users in cue, waiting their turn to control the image on the penguin-cam at the New England Aquarium website. Control is delayed for each camera operator/viewer. http://www.neaq.org/vtour/webcam.p.html
original creative act is performed in the studio or on location…the
film we see on the screen is merely a photographic reproduction, or
to be exact, the reproduction of a histrionic performance.” Balázs,
Béla. Theory of the Film (Character
and Growth of a New Art).
Translated by Edith Bone.
 Balázs, Béla. Theory of the Film (Character and Growth of a New Art). Translated by Edith Bone.
 Auslander, Philip. Liveness.p.2.
Aarseth, Espen J. Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic
“Formally stated, interactivity is an expression of the extent that in a given series
of communication exchanges, any third (or later) transmission (or
message) is related to the degree to which previous exchanges referred
to even earlier transmissions.” Rafaeli,
Shezaf. “Interactivity, From New Media
to Communication.” In Advanced
Communicational Science: Merging
Mass and Interpersonal Processes.
Robert P. Hawkins, John M. Wiemann,
and Suzanne Pingree, eds. 110-134.
 “For interactivity to occur, communication roles need to be interchangeable: role assignment and turn-taking are to be nonautomatic or nearly so.” Rafaeli, Shezaf. “Interactivity, From New Media to Communication.” Pg. 111
“The emphasis is on the player, not the programmer…
the author/programmer is as important as the reader/player.” Bolter, Jay David. Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of
 “… promises to affect our conceptions
of both the authors (and authority) of texts we study and of ourselves
as authors.” Landow, George. Hypertext:
The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology.
 Jay David Bolter “Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing” and Landow “Hypetextual Derrida”
““A reader, however strongly engaged in the unfolding
of a narrative, is powerless…He cannot have the player's pleasure
of influence: ‘Let's see what
happens, when I do this.’ The reader’s pleasure is the pleasure of the
but impotent.” Aarseth, Espen
J. Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature.
 Laurel, Brenda.
reality is defined as a real or simulated environment in which
a perceiver experiences telepresence.”Steuer,
Jonathan. “Defining Virtual Reality:
Dimensions Determining Telepresence.” In
Communication in the Age of
Reason. Frank Biocca and Mark R. Levy, eds. 33-56.
 Steuer, Jonathan. “Defining
Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence.” In Communication in the Age of Reason. Frank Biocca and Mark
R. Levy, eds.
 Laurel, Brenda, Rachel Strickland, Rob Tow, “Placeholder: Landscape and Narrative in Virtual Enviroments.” ACM Computer Graphics Quarterly, Volume 28, No. 2, November 2, May 1994
 Laurel, Brenda, Rachel Strickland, and Rob Tow. “Placeholder: Landscape and Narrative in Virtual Environments.” ACM Computer Graphics Quarterly. 28.2, May 1994.
 Aarseth, Espen J. Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic
 These groups include: Company in Space: Home Not Alone and Incarnate2 http://www.companyinspace.com/front/cis_fs.htm, Supreme Particles: Binary Ballistic Ballet http://www.particles.de/paradocs/index.html, and possibly works by Carl Weidemann. http://www.geocities.com/Broadway/Stage/1321/index.htm.
 However, I would like to suggest that narrative as defined by H. Porter Abbott still has a place in theatre. Abbot defines narrative as “the representation of events, consisting of story and narrative discourse.”i There can also be narrative in paintings, and he suggests that “narrative is the principal way in which our species organizes its understanding of time”i and therefore understands or experiences of the world. This can be telescoped into any information passed on through the act of interpretation –the creation and interpretation of symbols. i In this way it is perfectly acceptable to include narrative – communication of an idea into theatre.
i Abbot, H. Porter.
 Birringer, Johannes H. “Contemporary Performance/Technology.” Theatre Journal. 51.4 (December 1999): 361-381.
 Marranca, Bonnie, ed. The Theatre of Images.
 “The language
 “What can we do to make an existing dramatic script come alive?” Mark Reaney from Mahoney, Diana Phillips. "Live Theater Gets a Virtual Boost: At the University of Kansas, computer-generated scenery sets the stage for a one-of-a-kind production." Computer Graphics World, (July 1995) 76-78., p.78